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Earth 地球(英)

時間:2011-01-27 12:52?? ?點擊:
TAGS:地球,the,and,of,is,Earth 翻譯

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    Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the fifth largest:

    orbit:    149,600,000 km (1.00 AU) from Sun

    diameter: 12,756.3 km

    mass:     5.972e24 kg

    Earth is the only planet whose English name does not derive from Greek/Roman mythology. The name derives from Old English and Germanic. There are, of course, hundreds of other names for the planet in other languages. In Roman Mythology, the goddess of the Earth was Tellus - the fertile soil (Greek: Gaia, terra mater - Mother Earth).

    It was not until the time of Copernicus (the sixteenth century) that it was understood that the Earth is just another planet.

    Earth, of course, can be studied without the aid of spacecraft. Nevertheless it was not until the twentieth century that we had maps of the entire planet. Pictures of the planet taken from space are of considerable importance; for example, they are an enormous help in weather prediction and especially in tracking and predicting hurricanes. And they are extraordinarily beautiful.

    The Earth is divided into several layers which have distinct chemical and seismic properties (depths in km):

    0-  40  Crust

    40- 400  Upper mantle

    400- 650  Transition region

    650-2700  Lower mantle

    2700-2890  D layer

    2890-5150  Outer core

    5150-6378  Inner core

    The crust varies considerably in thickness, it is thinner under the oceans, thicker under the continents. The inner core and crust are solid; the outer core and mantle layers are plastic or semi-fluid. The various layers are separated by discontinuities which are evident in seismic data; the best known of these is the Mohorovicic discontinuity between the crust and upper mantle.

    Most of the mass of the Earth is in the mantle, most of the rest in the core; the part we inhabit is a tiny fraction of the whole (values below x10^24 kilograms):

    atmosphere     = 0.0000051

    oceans         = 0.0014

    crust          = 0.026

    mantle         = 4.043

    outer core     = 1.835

    inner core     = 0.09675

    The core is probably composed mostly of iron (or nickel/iron) though it is possible that some lighter elements may be present, too. Temperatures at the center of the core may be as high as 7500 K, hotter than the surface of the Sun. The lower mantle is probably mostly silicon, magnesium and oxygen with some iron, calcium and aluminum. The upper mantle is mostly olivine and pyroxene (iron/magnesium silicates), calcium and aluminum. We know most of this only from seismic techniques; samples from the upper mantle arrive at the surface as lava from volcanoes but the majority of the Earth is inaccessible. The crust is primarily quartz (silicon dioxide) and other silicates like feldspar. Taken as a whole, the Earth's chemical composition (by mass) is:

    34.6%  Iron

    29.5%  Oxygen

    15.2%  Silicon

    12.7%  Magnesium

    2.4%  Nickel

    1.9%  Sulfur

    0.05% Titanium

    The Earth is the densest major body in the solar system.

    The other terrestrial planets probably have similar structures and compositions with some differences: the Moon has at most a small core; Mercury has an extra large core (relative to its diameter); the mantles of Mars and the Moon are much thicker; the Moon and Mercury may not have chemically distinct crusts; Earth may be the only one with distinct inner and outer cores. Note, however, that our knowledge of planetary interiors is mostly theoretical even for the Earth.

    Unlike the other terrestrial planets, Earth's crust is divided into several separate solid plates which float around independently on top of the hot mantle below. The theory that describes this is known as plate tectonics. It is characterized by two major processes: spreading and subduction. Spreading occurs when two plates move away from each other and new crust is created by upwelling magma from below. Subduction occurs when two plates collide and the edge of one dives beneath the other and ends up being destroyed in the mantle. There is also transverse motion at some plate boundaries (i.e. the San Andreas Fault in California) and collisions between continental plates (i.e. India/Eurasia). There are (at present) eight major plates:

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二十九、Due to/Owing to/Thanks to + N/Ving,~~~(因為……)
  例句:Thanks to his encouragement,I finally realized my dream.

  因為他的鼓勵,我終于實現我的夢想。

  三十、What a + Adj + N + S + V!= How + Adj + a + N + V!(多么……!)

  例句:What an important thing it is to keep our promise!

  How important a thing it is to keep our promise!

  遵守諾言是多么重要的事!

  三十一、Leave much to be desired(令人不滿意)

  例句:The condition of our traffic leaves much to be desired.

  我們的交通狀況令人不滿意。

  三十二、Have a great influence on ~~~(對……有很大的影響)

  例句:Smoking has a great influence on our health.

  抽煙對我們的健康有很大的影響。

  三十三、do good to(對……有益),do harm to(對……有害)

  例句:Reading does good to our mind.

  讀書對心靈有益。

  Overwork does harm to health.

  工作過度對健康有害。

  三十四、Pose a great threat to ~~(對……造成一大威脅)

  例句:Pollution poses a great threat to our existence.

  污染對我們的生存造成一大威脅。

  三十五、do one‘s utmost to + V = do one’s best(盡全力去……)

  例句:We should do our utmost to achieve our goal in life.

  我們應盡全力去達成我們的人生目標。
 

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